Many roads were built along the path of least resistance for early travelers, and this meant easy access for fording streams. As roadways and modes of transportation improved, bridges were built to avoid fording streams. In these locations there is little elevation differential between the desired roadway and the streambed. The shape of the box culvert, with its essentially flat top and vertical sides, is especially well suited for these types of installations where high quantity flows may be encountered, but minimal space is available for deep flows and high backfill covers over the culvert

Corrugated steel box culverts

Box culverts are manufactured from standard 152 x 51 mm corrugated structural plate and 381 x 140 mm deep corrugated structural plate. They can be reinforced with either continuous corrugated plate or intermittent circumferential ribs using corrugated plate or structural shapes Standard corrugated box culverts are available in spans up to 8 m with end areas up to 20 m2, while deep corrugated box culverts can span up to 12.3 m with end areas
up to 36 m2


NOTABLE INSTALLATIONS AND OTHER TYPES OF SEWERS
Although the principal use of corrugated steel pipe (CSP) is for storm drainage, there are some classes of domestic, commercial and industrial effluent which may be
handled economically by corrugated steel pipe sewers. The corrosiveness of the effluent is a prime consideration. However, pretreatment of effluents, and a specific
required service life may also be pertinent factors. With adequate special coatings, linings and couplings, corrugated steel pipe has, in many instances, given a notable
record of economical and satisfactory service
The Credit Valley Conservation Authority installed over 533 m of 1525 mm
diameter CSP for storm control in the Metcalfe Ravine, in the Town of Georgetown, Ontario. Six alternate pipe designs, with full cost estimation and evaluation, were submitted by the consulting engineer. The lowest cost, and recommended alternative, was a design in corrugated steel pipe. The steel estimate was 68% less than the most expensive, and $16,000 less than the next lowest alternative The city of Grande Prairie, Alberta is typical of many modern, fast-growing young urban areas to be found across Canada, all of which are looking carefully at means to make their tax dollars go further. Well over 10 km of steel storm sewers have been installed by the city since 1977, using all-steel drainage design. Owners contractors, and engineers have realized significant cost savings, whenever corrugated steel pipe is specified, or allowed as an alternate to other pipe products
A revolutionary new approach to storm water management shows promise to solve, or at least considerably alleviate, the worldwide problem of urban flood damage during major rainfall events. This innovative engineering solution is usually within the taxpayer's pocketbook. Temporary detention of stormwater in underground storage tanks has been demonstrated as cost-effective in a prototype installation in a section of the then Borough of York, in northwest Metro Toronto Basement flooding in the area previously occurred on an average of once a year Since completion of the flood relief works in October 1978, there has been no basement flooding despite some major storms. The new works were designed to provide protection against up to ten year storm events. Preliminary estimates to provide overall storm relief and sewer separation for the Borough, based on a 1968 engineering study plus inflation, would have required expenditures over 25 years in excess of $40 million. From 1968 to 1976 approximately $6 million had been spent for separating storm and combined flows, and the three most extremely susceptible problem areas still required relief construction. The overall cost of the completed relief works for these three areas was approximately $988,000, or roughly one yearof the Borough's budget to solve the flooding problem